孙宁:「中考语法课堂」人称、物主、反身代词用法全解析及配套习题

孙宁:「中考语法课堂」人称、物主、反身代词用法全解析及配套习题

  英语中代词的种类比较多,今天我们来共同学习一下人称代词、物主代词、反身代词的用法及解题思路。

  一、形式:

  这三类代词均分为三个人称,第一人称(我、我们),第二人称(你、你们)和第三人称(他、他们),见下表:

  注意以下规律:

  1、主格和宾格相同的有:you it

  2、形容词性物主人词变为名词性物主代词基本都是在后面直接加s, 特殊的是:my变为mine,its his 二者相同。

  3、反身代词单数以self结尾,复数以selves结尾。

  二、用法:

  (一)人称代词:用来代替人或物(名词)的词。

  1、分类:主格和宾格。

  2、在句中所作成分:

  主格:在句子中做主语(动词前为主语)或表语(be动词后面)主语:I like music.表语:It is I that called him yesterday.

  宾格:在句子中做宾语(动词、介词后面)或表语(口语中使用较多)宾语:My parents love me.I am afraid of him.表语:Who is knocking at the door?It’s me.

  3、并列人称代词顺序:当多个人称代词同时使用时,顺序如下:

  1). 单数人称代词并列作主语时,顺序为:第二人称、第三人称 、第一人称,简称:231

  如:You, he and I will go to Shanghai on business tomorrow.

  2). 复数人称代词并列作主语时,顺序为:第一人称、 第二人称 、 第三人称,简称:123

  如:We, you and they are all members of the new club.

  3). 在以下情况中,第一人称放在前面。

  a. 在承认错误,承担责任时:这个很好理解,也很好记忆,有错误承担责任时要主动,是中华的传统美德。如:It was I and James that made the teacher angry.   是我和詹姆斯惹老师生气了。b. 在长辈对晚辈、上级对下级说话时:这样去记忆,资格老的对小的说话,把有资历的放前面,以示尊重。如:I and you will accept this task. 我和你将要接受这个任务。(我指的是上级)

  小结:人称代词顺序要记牢,单数231,复数123,承认错误、上对下、长对晚1在先。

  4、it用法多多,不仅仅指代前面提过的事物,还有以下用法:(简单说一下,在it用法大全中有详细讲解)

  1)用以明确身份:

  Who is knocking at the door? It's me.

  谁在敲门?是我。

  2)指代婴儿,尤指性别不详的婴儿:

  Who is the baby in the photo? It is my younger brother.

  照片中的婴儿是谁?是我的弟弟。

  3) 代替this和that:

  What's this?

  这是什么?

  It's a bag.

  是个书包。

  4)形式主语:

  It's easy(adj) to recite words like this.

  这样背单词很简单。

  5)形式宾语:

  I found it easy to study English well.

  我发现学好英语很简单。

  6)谈论时间、日期、距离、天气、气候、温度等时 it 作为主语:

  It is already ten past ten.

  It is May 6th today.

  It is two kilometers from my school to my house.

  It is very hot today.

  7)强调句:

  It is +强调部分+that/who+其他

  It is the teachers who/that give us knowledge.

  是老师教给我们知识。

  (二)物主代词:表示所属关系的代词,翻译为:…的。1、分类:形容词性物主代词、名词性物主代词。

  2、句中所做成分:

  形容词性物主代词:具有形容词词性,不能单独使用,使用时后面必须加名词,在句中作定语。My bag is new.

  名词性物主代词:前句中的名词在后句中再次出现时,为了避免重复,使语言更简练,用名词性物主代词,也就是说,名词性物主代词=形容词性物主代词+名词。My bag is new, hers(her bag) is old.

  名词性物主代词具有名词词性,在句中作主语、宾语、表语。

  主语:Her mother is a doctor. Mine is a teacher.表语:This bag is his.宾语:My bag is different from yours.

  3、相关用法:

  双重所有格:of、名词性物主代词或名词所有格均翻译成…的,所以称为双重所有格。何时用双重所有格呢?

  a(an, this, that, these, those, some, any, several, no, each, every, such, another, which)等+名词+of+名词性物主代词或名词所有格,其中初中阶段最常考的是“a/an”打头的双重所有格。

  按此句型,“我的朋友之一”应译为 a friend(名词)of mine(名词性物主代词)。

  再如:that book of Li Lei’s

  如果是the book of the girl,名词前是the,就不用girl’s.

  (三)反身代词:翻译为“…自己”

  1、句中所作成分:同位语(不能单独做主语),宾语

  同位语:The Internet itself is useful, but some people use it in a wrong way. 因特网本身很有用,但有些人错误地使用它。宾语: We must look after ourselves.我们一定要照顾好自己。

  2、常见短语:

  help oneself to… 随意吃……teach oneself 自学……enjoy oneself 玩得高兴 by oneself 独自 learn…by oneself 自学look after oneself 照顾自己improve oneself 改善自我express oneself 表达自己believe in oneself 相信自己=have confidence in oneselfrespect oneself 自尊introduce oneself 自我介绍relax oneself 自我放松say to oneself 自言自语

  3、相关知识链接:

  注意反身代词与own区别:反身代词翻译成“...自己”,而own翻译成“自己的”。

  如:我自己的房子my own house, 不能说成 myself house

  三、解题思路:

  做题时主要需要区分的就是物主代词和人称代词,反身代词根据翻译很容易选择,下面我们来看一下如何区分用物主代词还是用人称代词:

  区分人称和物主,一个“的”字全解决。

  这句顺口溜咱们解读一下就是:翻译成“…的”用物主代词。

  有些同学可能说了,那my mother,也没有“的”字呀,那咱们可以这么说,只要能加进去“的”字,必填物主代词。

  “我妈妈”也可以说成“我的妈妈”,但“我是一个工人”却不能说成“我的是一个工人”,对吗?

  所以,这二种代词的区分就是一个“的”字即可解决!确定好之后再根据上面的用法确定用主格、宾格、形容词性还是名词性物主代词。

  举个例子:Her balloon is blue, _____ is yellow. (me).很简单,翻译:“我”是黄色,还是“我的”是黄色,根据上下文,应该是“我的”,确定用物主代词,再来看用形容词性还是名词性,后面没有名词,所以用名词性物主代词,答案是mine,很简单吧!

  小结:

  这就是我们所讲的三类代词的形式、具体用法、相关知识点及解题思路,大家在心中形成一个知识网络会更容易记忆。

  最后我们来检验一下我们的学习成果吧!

  四、实战演练:

  用所给代词的适当形式填空:

  1. You

  ______ are not a child any longer.

  Please look after ________, Lucy.

  Help _______ to some fish, Li Lei and Jim.

  What is ______ mother?

  That is her book. This is _______.

  2. I

  ______ am from China.

  _____ parents love _______.

  That is Li Lei’s book. This is ______.

  I want to look for a person to take the place of _______ because I am too busy to finish it on time.

  I can look after _______ well.

  I saw it ______.

  I am afraid to go out in the evening by _______

  3. She

  ______ studies hard.

  ______ father is a worker.

  She teaches ______ English.

  I get on well with_____.

  My book is new, _____ is old.

  4. We

  _______ country is great.

  ______ live by _______.

  This is their classroom. That is ______.

  Let _____ plant trees together.

  5. They

  ______ are students.

  _______ teachers are patient.

  I often play with______.

  They are enjoying ________.

  My idea is different from ______.

  6. He

  ______ sister is a teacher.

  She always encourages him to study hard.

  ______ is kind.

  He learnt to swim by______.

  Jim is a friend of _______.

  He is shy. He can’t express _______ clearly all the time.

  7. it

  ______ is a cat.

  _____ name is Mimi.

  I like ______ very much.

  The book _____ is very good, but there are so many new words.

  参考答案如下:

  以上就是人物代词、物主代词、反身代词的所有用法了,希望你能从中找到自己所需要的哟。

  本文为Kelly教你学英语原创,欢迎关注留言!


孙宁:「中考语法课堂」人称、物主、反身代词用法全解析及配套习题